India Internal Security Appraisal MHA 2021-22
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) released its annual report for the year 2021-22. The report covered multifarious responsibilities that the ministry discharges however a major responsibility is that of internal security given multiple challenges that are faced in this domain by India including insurgency and terrorism.
As the Constitution states that ‘public order’ and ‘police’ comes under the State responsibilities in the Seventh Schedule. Even then, Article 355 of the Constitution enjoins the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance.
Thus, ‘the MHA continuously monitors the internal security situation, issues appropriate advisories, shares intelligence inputs, extends manpower and financial support, guidance and expertise to the State Governments for maintenance of security, peace and harmony without encroaching upon the constitutional rights of the States,’ said the Report.
As per the MHA Report, the Internal Security country is broadly categorized as follows:
(a) Terrorism in the hinterland of the country
(b) Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in certain areas
(c) Insurgency in the North Eastern States
(d) Cross-Border terrorism in Jammu & Kashmir
As the report suggests, in the year 2021, the internal security situation in the country remained under control. The Government of India accorded due priority to enhancing internal security capability.
The principal focus on the internal security front remained on countering terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, improving the security scenario in the North Eastern States, combating Left Wing Extremism and maintaining peace in the hinterland of the country.
As per the report, the Government of India has adopted an integrated and holistic approach where a National Policy and Action Plan have been put in place that adopts a multi-pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, and ensuring rights & entitlements of local communities which has brought about considerable improvement in the Left Wing Extremist affected areas.
The North Eastern Region (NER) comprises eight States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The terrain, the state of socio-economic development and historical factors such as language/ ethnicity, tribal rivalry, migration, control over local resources and long and porous international borders have resulted in a fragile security situation in the North Eastern States however concerted efforts has led to an improvement as per the Report.
Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) has been affected by terrorist and secessionist violence, sponsored and supported from across the border, for more than three decades. To support the Government of J&K in its initiatives, the Central Government has been making available Central Armed Police Forces as and when necessary, and has been helping to strengthen the J&K Police.
[Extracted by Harshita Singh Panwar]